Pontiac Grand Prix

Thursday 28 March 2019
The Grand Prix was a line of automobiles produced by the Pontiac Division of General Motors from 1962 through 2002 for coupes and 1988-2008 for sedans. First introduced as part of Pontiac's full-size car model offering for the 1962 model year, the marque varied repeatedly in size, luxury, and performance during its lifespan. Among the changes were positioning in the personal luxury car market segment and mid-size car offering from the 2nd generation to the 5th generation for the sedan and from the 2nd generation to the 6th generation from the coupe; it returned to a full-size car from the 6th generation to the 7th generation for the sedan, positioned above the larger Bonneville in Pontiac's model lineup.
Pontiac's general manager John Z. DeLorean ordered the development of an all-new Grand Prix for the 1969 model year. It featured dramatic bodywork and a highly pronounced grill, and rode on a slightly stretched version of the intermediate GM A platform dubbed the G-Body.
DeLorean and other Pontiac planners saw a way to reverse the declining sales of the full-sized Grand Prix by creating a new niche in the burgeoning personal luxury car market. Smaller than the hulking Cadillac Eldorado and Oldsmobile Toronado, but positioned to be nimbler and more performance oriented than the slightly less bulky Ford Thunderbird and Buick Riviera, the new Grand Prix was designed to outshine the upscale Mercury Cougar XR-7 Pony car and B-bodied performance-oriented Dodge Charger intermediate.
Sales reached over 112,000 units, almost quadruple the 32,000 full-sized models built in 1968. The similar but less luxurious Chevrolet Monte Carlo followed in 1970. Ford and Chrysler responded by producing plusher versions of their intermediate Torino and Charger, but both eventually created newer entries to the intermediate personal luxury car battle—the Ford Elite in 1974 and Chrysler Cordoba in 1975.
Shortened by three inches from the previous Catalina wheelbase, the 118 in (3,000 mm) 1969 Grand Prix finally had its own body – and Pontiac's longest-ever hood. Like all but the short-lived 1967 convertible, the new Grand Prix was a 2-door hardtop. Model names borrowed suggestive Duesenberg Model J nomenclature for "J" and "SJ" levels of trim.
The basic 1969 body shell saw a major facelift in 1971 bracketed by minor detail revisions in the 1970 and 1972 model years.
The new intermediate-based 1969 Grand Prix began to take shape in April 1967, with a few prototype models built on the full-sized Pontiac platform before the G-Body was ready. To save both development costs and time in much the same manner Ford created the original 1964 Mustang using the basic chassis and drivetrain from the compact Falcon, the revised Grand Prix would have a unique bodyshell but share the A-body intermediate platform and mechanicals with the Tempest, Le Mans and GTO. This reduced development time from the usual 36 months required for a new model to less than 18 , allowing Pontiac to concentrate upgrading styling and interior appointments. Shortened by three inches from the previous Catalina wheelbase, the 118 in (3,000 mm) 1969 Grand Prix finally had its own body – and Pontiac's longest-ever hood. Like all but the short-lived 1967 convertible, the new Grand Prix was a 2-door hardtop. Model names borrowed suggestive Duesenberg Model J nomenclature for "J" and "SJ" levels of trim.
The basic 1969 body shell saw a major facelift in 1971 bracketed by minor detail revisions in the 1970 and 1972 model years.
A new integrated bumper/grille and larger single headlights replacing the quad lights of 1969-70 models marked the introduction of the 1971 Grand Prix along with a new slanted boattail-style rear with taillights built into the bumper. Interior revisions amounted to new trim patterns for cloth and vinyl upholstery patterns for both the bench and bucket seats, but the leather interior option was discontinued.
Engine choices included the standard 400 cu in (6.6 L) V8 with four-barrel carburetor and dual exhausts, rated at 300 hp (220 kW); and the optional four-barrel 455 cu in (7.5 L) V8 rated at 325 hp (242 kW). Both engines received substantially lower compression ratios (8.4:1 for 1971 compared to 10.25:1 in 1970) as part of a GM-corporate edict that required engines to use lower-octane regular leaded, low lead or unleaded gasoline beginning with the 1971 model year. Transmission offerings initially were carried over from previous years, including the standard three-speed manual, or optional four-speed stick or Turbo Hydra-Matic. However, at mid-year, Turbo Hydra-Matic automatic became standard equipment and the manual shifters were dropped. Variable-ratio power steering was made standard equipment as well.
New power ratings were put into effect, requiring manufacturers to post net horsepower with all accessories installed (vs. gross rating without the accessories). This system gave a more realistic measure of power that customers actually saw. The base 400 cu in (6.6 L) four-barrel engine then produced 255 hp (190 kW) after the switch to the net-rating system, and the 455 cu in (7.5 L) in SJ models also dropped in power to 260 hp (190 kW) (net). Customers who wanted the higher powered 455 SJ model paid $195 to get Rally gauges, body-colored mirrors, SJ badging, a no-maintenance AC Delco battery and other amenities. 1971 looked to be a good sales year for the Grand Prix, but in mid-September 1970, a corporate wide labor strike halted all GM production for 67 days. The strike also delayed the production of the third generation Grand Prix by one year in 1973. Production numbers for 1971 were lower than 1970 with only 58,325 units being produced. The strike cut into production and sales along with other possible factors including lower horsepower ratings and intense competition from Chevy's Monte Carlo and Oldsmobile's Cutlass Supreme.
A new integrated bumper/grille and larger single headlights replacing the quad lights of 1969-70 models marked the introduction of the 1971 Grand Prix along with a new slanted boattail-style rear with taillights built into the bumper. Interior revisions amounted to new trim patterns for cloth and vinyl upholstery patterns for both the bench and bucket seats, but the leather interior option was discontinued.
Engine choices included the standard 400 cu in (6.6 L) V8 with four-barrel carburetor and dual exhausts, rated at 300 hp (220 kW); and the optional four-barrel 455 cu in (7.5 L) V8 rated at 325 hp (242 kW). Both engines received substantially lower compression ratios (8.4:1 for 1971 compared to 10.25:1 in 1970) as part of a GM-corporate edict that required engines to use lower-octane regular leaded, low lead or unleaded gasoline beginning with the 1971 model year. Transmission offerings initially were carried over from previous years, including the standard three-speed manual, or optional four-speed stick or Turbo Hydra-Matic. However, at mid-year, Turbo Hydra-Matic automatic became standard equipment and the manual shifters were dropped. Variable-ratio power steering was made standard equipment as well.
New power ratings were put into effect, requiring manufacturers to post net horsepower with all accessories installed (vs. gross rating without the accessories). This system gave a more realistic measure of power that customers actually saw. The base 400 cu in (6.6 L) four-barrel engine then produced 255 hp (190 kW) after the switch to the net-rating system, and the 455 cu in (7.5 L) in SJ models also dropped in power to 260 hp (190 kW) (net). Customers who wanted the higher powered 455 SJ model paid $195 to get Rally gauges, body-colored mirrors, SJ badging, a no-maintenance AC Delco battery and other amenities. 1971 looked to be a good sales year for the Grand Prix, but in mid-September 1970, a corporate wide labor strike halted all GM production for 67 days. The strike also delayed the production of the third generation Grand Prix by one year in 1973. Production numbers for 1971 were lower than 1970 with only 58,325 units being produced. The strike cut into production and sales along with other possible factors including lower horsepower ratings and intense competition from Chevy's Monte Carlo and Oldsmobile's Cutlass Supreme.











Technical data:
- engine: V8
- capacity: 6600 cc
- horsepower: 230 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 170 km/h

Pontiac Grand Am

Thursday 28 March 2019
The Pontiac Grand Am is a mid-size car and later a compact car that was produced by Pontiac. The history of Grand Am starts with Pontiac executives noting incursion into the US market by Mercedes and BMW. Notably, the American sports car was usually without luxury features and the luxury car without sport features. Foreign makes mixed these features. Pontiac hybridized the Trans Am with the Grand Prix to create the Grand Am. Built on the A-body platform, the intended GTO body was re-badged and fitted with the Grand Prix interior. As the 1973 was produced, OPEC levied an oil embargo to the USA. This resulted in a dichotomy of buyers: total luxury or total economy. Since Grand Am was a “in-betweener “, it’s sales died and it was discontinued in 1975. The Grand Am had two separate three-year runs in the 1970s: from 1973 to 1975, and again from 1978 to 1980. It was based on the GM A platform. Production of the Grand Am was canceled in 1980 when it was replaced by the Pontiac 6000. The Grand Am was reintroduced in 1985 when it replaced the Pontiac Phoenix. It became Pontiac's best selling car and was later replaced by the Pontiac G6, so named as it was intended to be the 6th generation of the Grand Am.
All 1973-1975 Grand Ams were built in Pontiac, Michigan at Pontiac's main assembly plant. The 1978-1980 Grand Ams were built in Pontiac, Michigan at Pontiac's main assembly plant and in Atlanta, Georgia at GMAD Lakewood. All Grand Ams between 1985 and 2005 were built in Lansing, Michigan at the Lansing Car Assembly.
The Grand Am, coined by Pontiac with a name derived from two other cars in its lineup ("Grand" signifying "Grand Prix luxury" and "Am" for "Trans Am performance") was designed as America's answer to European luxury/sport sedans and available as a 4-door Colonnade sedan or a 2-door Colonnade coupe. A total of 43,136 Grand Ams were built during the first year of production (both two-door and four-door models).
The Grand Am could be had with a standard 2-bbl 400 cu in (6.6 L) V8 engine with single exhaust producing 170 hp (127 kW; 172 PS), an optional 4-bbl version of this engine with single exhaust producing 200 hp (149 kW; 203 PS) that was only available with a 4-speed manual transmission, an optional 4-bbl version of this engine with dual exhaust producing 230 hp (172 kW; 233 PS), or an optional 4-bbl 455 cu in (7.5 L) with dual exhaust 250 hp (186 kW; 253 PS). Availability of 310 hp (231 kW; 314 PS) Super Duty version of the 4-bbl 455 V8 did not materialize.
All engines were available with a Turbo-hydramatic 400 automatic transmission as standard equipment. A 4-speed manual transmission was available with the 400/4-bbl engine in 1973 and 1974, but this was not popular.
The 1973 Pontiac Grand Am style had a unique flexible urethane front fascia center nose (known as the 'Endura' nose) that was squeezable and could return to its original shape following a minor collision along with the new energy-absorbing bumpers, a total of six grille openings with vertical bars, round front turn signals with a cross-hair design, horizontal rear tail lights, and chrome rear bumper. Additionally, Grand Ams featured a Radial Tuned Suspension (RTS) as standard equipment that included radial-ply tires, Pliacell shock absorbers, and front and rear sway bars. The springs were advertised as being computer selected. The Grand Am was one of only three GM cars to have standard radial tires and appropriate suspension tuning in 1973, with the others being the Oldsmobile Cutlass Salon and Chevrolet Monte Carlo S.
The Grand Am included Strato bucket seats upholstered in Naugahyde vinyl or corduroy cloth featuring manual recliners and adjustable lumbar supports - both features common on European-style sports/luxury sedans, but unusual for American cars of that time. Also included were an instrument panel from the Pontiac Grand Prix featuring a Rally gauge cluster with fuel, oil, water and volt gauges (a tachometer or fuel economy gauge was optional, and on cars so equipped, the clock was moved to a space on the lower instrument panel under the radio), three-spoke padded steering wheel with brushed-stainless spokes, and Genuine Crossfire African Mahogany trim on the dash facing, radio and clock surrounds, as well as the center console between the front seats. Grand Ams also were among the first U.S.-built cars with a turn-signal mounted headlight dimmer switch that had been common on imported cars for decades. Other standard equipment included concealed windshield wipers, a 1.12-inch (28 mm) front stabilizer bar, and an in-the-windshield radio antenna. Upscale options included air conditioning, tinted glass, power windows-locks-seat, rear defogger, various sound systems, and tilt-steering-wheel. AM/FM stereo with a tape player was optional.
Pontiac also produced a single 1973 Grand Am station wagon as a feasibility study. This was a LeMans wagon converted to a Grand Am. A functional ram-air induction system was developed for the Pontiac A-bodies utilizing twin NACA openings in the hood, but the option was dropped due to inability to pass federally mandated drive-by noise standards. A few functional Ram Air systems were sold over the counter. The twin-scoop NACA hood was an option for any Pontiac A-body for all three years, but was non-functional.
In a Popular Mechanics Owners survey, 67% rated the build quality as good to excellent and 79% liked the handling. However, 22.1% disliked the fuel economy.











Technical data:
- engine: V8
- capacity: 6600 cc
- horsepower: 170 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 170 km/h

Mercedes Benz Unimog U406

Wednesday 27 March 2019
The Unimog 406 is a vehicle of the Unimog-series by Mercedes-Benz. A total of 37,069 units were manufactured by the Daimler-Benz AG in the Unimog plant in Gaggenau from 1963 to 1989. The 406 was the first medium duty Unimog, having a larger wheelbase of 2380 mm and more than twice the engine power of the Unimog 401. Unlike the initial Unimog, the 406 does not have a car engine but a heavy duty truck engine instead. Several following Unimog versions were based on the 406. There were eleven different types made of the Unimog 406, which were available in four models (U 65 – U 84) with a closed two-door or four-door cab, as Cabrio and as an OEM part (a "half" Unimog lacking the rear part, as a basis for third party vehicle manufacturers). During its long production period, the 406 received several technical refinements. In 1964, the precombustion chamber diesel engine OM 312 was replaced with the direct injected OM 352. Disc brakes followed in 1973. For many enthusiasts, the Unimog 406 represents the classical Unimog, having agricultural and silvicultural applications. It was successful and the best embodiment of the word Universal-Motor-Gerät considering all prior Unimogs.
The initial Unimog concept was favoured by customers and accessory manufacturers, however, starting in the early 1960s, they desired a "heavy duty Unimog", following the trend of more powerful agricultural tractors beginning in the late 1950s which was due to German agriculture's shift to heavy mechanisation requiring less personnel. It led to the end of the tractor boom in Germany in the mid-1960s, a demand for agricultural tractors with low power output. The most powerful Unimog 411 model at that time was offered with a 25-kW-engine which was considered too weak for several applications. Analysts warned that the demand for the Unimog 411 would pass the zenith after 1960 and fall below 3000 produced units per year. This point was reached in 1964. Also, a decline of the military Unimog 404 production was foreseeable since the Bundeswehr had reached their required number of vehicles for the majority of their regiments and battalions. Therefore, Daimler-Benz decided to create a more powerful Unimog, the 406.
In 1960, the performance specifications were completed. The 406 was still supposed to be an agricultural and silvicultural vehicle and tractor but have a greater wheelbase, a higher top speed, the downbent frame of the Unimog 404 and a stronger engine. Three cabs were planned: The Cabrio cab, a closed cab and a closed double cab. The initial engine concept favoured the direct-injected four-cylinder, diesel engine OM 314 with 54 PS (40 kW). Since Heinrich Rößler, the leader of the Unimog development did not want this engine, it was decided to use the also direct injected six-cylinder OM 352 instead. New tyres had to be developed by Dunlop and Continental, also, the Unimog 406 needed a new hydraulics system for auxiliary devices and a new drivetrain with new axles and a new gearbox for the increased engine power. Several new 1,000 Mp (9,807 kN) sheet panel presses had to be installed in the plant in Gaggenau for producing the closed cabs.
The first prototypes were tested in 1961, prototype 1 was a disguised prototype vehicle lacking the Mercedes-Benz and Unimog emblems with a slightly different cab and the bumper of the Unimog 404, prototype 2 already had the cab of the series production model with emblems but still had the Unimog 404 bumper. The final presentation of the Unimog 406 was at the DLG-exhibition in München 1962, led by the Daimler-Benz board of directors. In the run-up to the presentation on 20 May 1962 a lot of minor Unimog changes and improvements as well as improvisations were made. Daimler-Benz split the truck production in Gaggenau in 1963; while the truck and lorry production was moved to the new Daimler-Benz plant in Wörth, the Unimog production stayed in Gaggenau. More production capacity could be used for the new Unimog 406. In 1963, 800 Unimog 406 were produced, the first 100 of them being pre-series production models.
During the late 1960s, the Unimog 406 was a popular type though the less powerful but cheaper Unimog types (403 with a smaller industrial engine and 421 with a car engine) were introduced Yearly improvements increased the quality of the Unimog, the highest production figures were reached in the first half of the 1970s. With the start of the series production of the heavy duty Unimog types 425 in 1974 and 435 in 1975, the demand for the 406 was declining. The yearly improvements were reduced and since 1979, the 406 had not been changed anymore. Soon it became very unpopular with an average production number of only 380 Unimogs per year during the 1980s. Series production was stopped after 27 years in 1989. With the Unimog 406, Daimler-Benz laid the foundation for the expansion of the Unimog family. 94,215 Unimogs of eight different series belonging to the 406 family were made from 1962 to 1994. The family included similar models all based on the technical and optical design of the Unimog 406 with different engines, wheelbases and applications. In 1965, the first long wheelbase model in addition to the 406 was offered, the Unimog 416. It had the same wheelbase as the long wheelbase model of the Unimog 404: 2900 mm. It was also available with 3400 mm. Later, the conveyance motor models and the more powerful prototypes of the Unimog 406 were also integrated into the Unimog 416 series. Engines with 80–125 PS (59–92 kW) were offered for this model. It was the most popular Unimog of the 406 family with 45,544 units made. In March 1966, the Unimog 421 was added to the Unimog family, a weaker model with 40 PS (29 kW). It was followed by the Unimog 403 in August 1966. The 403 has the OM 314 engine with 54 PS (40 kW) that was initially planned for the 406 and is therefore a cheaper model. With the increasing demand for higher power output, Daimler-Benz offered a 66 PS (48 kW) version starting in 1969 that was followed by a 72 PS (53 kW) model in 1976 for the 403. Optically and technically there are no differences between the Unimog 403 and 406 other than the engine. Since Daimler-Benz also wanted to offer an inexpensive version of the long wheelbase model, they created the Unimog 413. Due to the less powerful OM 314 engine, it was less expensive but also very unpopular, only 633 Unimog 413 were made. From 1969 to 1971, CKD-kits of the Unimog 421 were made for the production in Argentina. These Unimogs belong to the Unimog 431 series.
While the majority of military Unimogs are 404s, some 406-family Unimogs were also made for military use. These are the 426 and the 419. Starting in 1969, completely knocked-down (CKD) Unimog 416 parts were made in Gaggenau and shipped to Argentina where these parts were used to build a licensed version of the Unimog which was given the number 426. In total, 2643 Unimog 426 were made for the Argentine, Chilean, Peruvian and Bolivian military. A version for the United States Army with the type number 419 was made starting in 1986. Approximately 2200 units were planned, in total, 2416 were produced. The Unimog 419 has the same wheelbase as the 406 but comes with a more powerful version of the OM 352 engine with 110 PS (81 kW). Unlike other Unimogs, it was sold under the Freightliner brand name and classified as Small Emplacement Excavator (SEE) tractor that was used as an engineer vehicle. The Unimog 406.145 was a military aircraft tractor.













Technical data:
- engine: 6 cylinders
- capacity: 3400 cc
- horsepower: 82 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 100 km/h

MAN 16.320

Wednesday 27 March 2019
Please share any information you might have on this one.













Technical data:
- engine: V10
- capacity: 12000 cc
- horsepower: 435 HP
- gearbox: 8+1
- top speed: 100 km/h

Henschel HS 19TS

Monday 25 March 2019
Please share any information you might have on this one.











Technical data:
- engine: V10
- capacity: 12000 cc
- horsepower: 435 HP
- gearbox: 8+1
- top speed: 100 km/h

Magirus Deutz Jupiter

Monday 25 March 2019
The Magirus Mercur is a German 5 ton truck that was built by Magirus Deutz in Germany from 1951 to 1972. Other series from this manufacturer were also named after stars and planets, possibly because of the "sun and planet" gears at the rear axle. Increasingly heavy trucks were named Magirus Sirius, Mercur, Saturn, Jupiter, Pluto and Uranus. The trucks were equipped with different variations of air cooled Diesel engines, from 4R to V12. The initially round hood ("Rundhauber") was eventually changed to a square design ("Eckhauber") in all wheel drive models to facilitate body flexing off road. The round hood was ultimately discontinued.
The Magirus Deutz trucks were very successful, especially as dump trucks in construction (referred to as "German Bulls", mostly Mercurs and Saturns). The Mercur model could be found in so many German fire departments that it has been called the prototypical German fire engine. The V8 "Jupiter" was often used as an airfield fire truck or a military crane. V12 Uranus models were mostly used as a crane or for towing tanks. The Jupiter and Uranus models were also used by the armed forces of several European governments (Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Denmark), and some 40+ years old Jupiter fire trucks are still being used by the German forces in Afghanistan today.













Technical data:
- engine: V8
- capacity: 10000 cc
- horsepower: 190 HP
- gearbox: 5+1
- top speed: 80 km/h

Ford Ranchero GT

Friday 22 March 2019
The Ford Ranchero is a coupe utility that was produced by Ford between 1957 and 1979. Unlike a pickup truck, the Ranchero was adapted from a two-door station wagon platform that integrated the cab and cargo bed into the body. A total of 508,355 units were produced during the model's production run. Over its lifespan it was variously derived from full-sized, compact, and intermediate automobiles sold by Ford for the North American market.
During the 1970s, the Ranchero name was used in the South African market on a rebadged Australian Ford Falcon utility. These vehicles were sent to South Africa in complete knock down (CKD) form, and assembled at the Port Elizabeth plant. In Argentina, a utility version of the locally produced Ford Falcon was also called Ranchero.
The original Ranchero sold well enough to spawn a competitor from General Motors in 1959, the Chevrolet El Camino.
The first Ford Model T and Model A pickup trucks were created from roadsters by placing a pickup box behind the body of a car. In 1934, Ford Australia's designer Lew Bandt modified a coupe with a smoothly integrated loadbed that could be used like a car to drive to church or to deliver pigs to market. This created the coupe utility which remains a popular body style known as the "ute" in Australia. In North America, pickup trucks evolved into a heavier duty form with cabs and beds that were quite distinct from passenger automobiles. The Ranchero was the first postwar American vehicle of its type adapted from a popular sedan from the factory. It combined the sleek looks of a sedan with the utility of a light-duty pickup truck.
In 1972, a radical change occurred in the Torino and Ranchero lines. The sleek, pointy look of the previous year's model was replaced with a larger, heavier design. Most prominent was a wide semioval grille reminiscent of a jet intake and a new body-on-frame design. Three models were still available; the now-standard 500, the new Squire with simulated woodgrain "paneling" along the flanks, and the sporty GT. Engine choices remained basically the same beginning with the 250 cubic-inch six-cylinder and a selection of V8s that ranged from the standard 302 to Cleveland and Windsor series 351s, plus the new-for-1972 400. The 385-series V8 (the 429 for 1972-73; the 460 for 1974-76) was still available. However, all suffered from lower compression ratios to better meet new emissions standards. The 351 cu in (5.8 L) Cleveland could still be obtained in tuned 4-V Cobra Jet form through 1974. A four-speed manual transmission was available on Cobra Jet-powered GT models.
The 1973 Ranchero had a redesigned front end to meet new federal standards for front impact protection. Aside from slight cosmetic differences, the Ranchero remained basically the same until the Torino's final year, 1976.













Technical data:
- engine: V8
- capacity: 6600 cc
- horsepower: 230 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 170 km/h

Ford Mustang Mustero

Tuesday 20 March 2019
When the Mustang debuted many saw different possibilities for the sporty new Ford. One group created station wagons while these guys built them into trucks.
Perhaps encouraged by the production of the Intermeccania Mustang station wagon, which had been based on an internal Ford design, Beverly Hills Ford (now defunct) secured permission from the Ford Motor Company to build a series of pickup trucks based on the 1965 – 66 Mustang – a relationship similar to what Ford has today with Galpin Ford Autosports and its Fisker Rocket.
A separate company was formed, named Beverly Hills Mustang Limited, located on Alden Drive in Beverly Hills (now the site of a modern granite and glass office building).
The name they decided upon was a blending (portmanteau, to be accurate) of the words Mustang and Ranchero to create Mustero. Not really an appealing name, sounding a bit like a fungus that grows on grape vines.











Technical data:
- engine: 4 cylinders
- capacity: 1290 cc
- horsepower: 62 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 142 km/h

Ford Escort MkI

Tuesday 19 March 2019
The Ford Escort is a small family car which was manufactured by Ford Europe from 1968 to 2004. The Ford Escort name was also applied to several different small cars produced in North America by Ford between 1981 and 2003.
The Mark I Ford Escort was introduced in Ireland and the United Kingdom at the end of 1967, making its show debut at Brussels Motor Show in January 1968. It replaced the successful, long-running Anglia. The car was presented in continental Europe as a product of Ford's European operation. Escort production commenced at the Halewood plant in England during the closing months of 1967, and for left hand drive markets during September 1968 at the Ford plant in Genk. Initially the continental Escorts differed slightly from the UK built ones under the skin. The front suspension and steering gear were differently configured and the brakes were fitted with dual hydraulic circuits; also the wheels fitted on the Genk-built Escorts had wider rims. At the beginning of 1970, continental European production transferred to a new plant on the edge of Saarlouis, West Germany.
The Escort was a commercial success in several parts of western Europe, but nowhere more than in the UK, where the national best seller of the 1960s, BMC's Austin/Morris 1100 was beginning to show its age while Ford's own Cortina had grown, both in dimensions and in price, beyond the market niche at which it had originally been pitched. It also competed with the Vauxhall Viva, and from early 1970 the Rootes Group's Hillman Avenger.
In June 1974, six years into the car's UK introduction, Ford announced the completion of the two millionth Ford Escort, a milestone hitherto unmatched by any Ford model outside the US. It was also stated that 60% of the two million Escorts had been built in Britain. In West Germany cars were built at a slower rate of around 150,000 cars per year, slumping to 78,604 in 1974 which was the last year for the Escort Mark I. Many of the German built Escorts were exported, notably to Benelux and Italy; from the West German domestic market perspective the car was cramped and uncomfortable when compared with the well-established and comparably priced Opel Kadett, and it was technically primitive when set against the successful imported Fiat 128 and Renault 12. Subsequent generations of the Escort made up some of the ground foregone by the original model, but in Europe's largest auto-market the Escort sales volumes always came in well behind those of the General Motors Kadett and its Astra successor.
he Escort had conventional rear-wheel drive and a four-speed manual gearbox, or three-speed automatic transmission. The suspension consisted of MacPherson strut front suspension and a simple live axle mounted on leaf springs. The Escort was the first small Ford to use rack-and-pinion steering. The Mark I featured contemporary styling cues in tune with its time: a subtle Detroit-inspired "Coke bottle" waistline and the "dogbone" shaped front grille – arguably the car's main stylistic feature. Similar Coke bottle styling featured in the larger Cortina Mark III (a visually similar car was built in West Germany as the Taunus) launched in 1970.
Initially, the Escort was sold as a two-door saloon (with circular front headlights and rubber flooring on the "De Luxe" model). The "Super" model featured rectangular headlights, carpets, a cigar lighter and a water temperature gauge. A two-door estate was introduced at the end of March 1968 which, with the back seat folded down, provided a 40% increase in maximum load space over the old Anglia 105E estate, according to the manufacturer. The estate featured the same engine options as the saloon, but it also included a larger, 7 1⁄2-inch-diameter (190 mm) clutch, stiffer rear springs and in most configurations slightly larger brake drums or discs than the saloon. A panel van appeared in April 1968 and the 4-door saloon (a bodystyle the Anglia was never available in for UK market) in 1969.
Underneath the bonnet was the Kent Crossflow engine also used in the smallest capacity North American Ford Pinto. Diesel engines on small family cars were rare, and the Escort was no exception, initially featuring only petrol engines – in 1.1 L, and 1.3 L versions. A 940 cc engine was also available in some export markets such as Italy and France. This tiny engine remained popular in Italy, where it was carried over for the Escort Mark II, but in France it was discontinued during 1972.
There was a 1300GT performance version, with a tuned 1.3 L Crossflow (OHV) engine with a Weber carburetor and uprated suspension. This version featured additional instrumentation with a tachometer, battery charge indicator, and oil pressure gauge. The same tuned 1.3 L engine was also used in a variation sold as the Escort Sport, that used the flared front wings from the AVO range of cars, but featured trim from the more basic models. Later, an "executive" version of the Escort was produced known as the "1300E". This featured the same 13" road wheels and flared wings of the Sport, but was trimmed in an upmarket, for that time, fashion with wood trim on the dashboard and door cappings.
A higher performance version for rallies and racing was available, the Escort Twin Cam, built for Group 2 international rallying. It had an engine with a Lotus-made eight-valve twin camshaft head fitted to the 1.5 L non-crossflow block, which had a bigger bore than usual to give a capacity of 1,558 cc. This engine had originally been developed for the Lotus Elan. Production of the Twin Cam, which was originally produced at Halewood, was phased out as the Cosworth-engined RS1600 (RS denoting Rallye Sport) production began. The most famous edition of the Twin Cam was raced on behalf of Ford by Alan Mann Racing in the British Saloon Car Championship in 1968 and 1969, sporting a full Formula 2 Ford FVC 16-valve engine producing over 200 hp. The Escort, driven by Australian driver Frank Gardner went on to comfortably win the 1968 championship.
The Mark I Escorts became successful as a rally car, and they eventually went on to become one of the most successful rally cars of all time. The Ford works team was practically unbeatable in the late 1960s / early 1970s, and arguably the Escort's greatest victory was in the 1970 London to Mexico World Cup Rally, driven by Finnish legend Hannu Mikkola and Swedish co-driver Gunnar Palm. This gave rise to the Escort Mexico (1598cc "crossflow"-engined) special edition road versions in honour of the rally car. Introduced in November 1970, 10,352 Mexico Mark Is were built using bodyshells using additional strengthening panels in high stress areas making them more suitable for competition.
In addition to the Mexico, the RS1600 was developed with 1,601 cc Cosworth BDA which used a Crossflow block with a 16-valve Cosworth cylinder head, named for "Belt Drive A Series". Both the Mexico and RS1600 were built at Ford's Advanced Vehicle Operations (AVO) facility located at the Aveley Plant in South Essex. As well as higher performance engines and sports suspension, like the Mexico these models featured the strengthened bodyshell.
After updating the factory team cars with a larger 1701 cc Cosworth BDB engine in 1972 and then with fuel injected BDC, Ford also produced an RS2000 model as an alternative to the somewhat temperamental RS1600, featuring a 2.0 L Pinto (OHC) engine. This also clocked up some rally and racing victories; and pre-empted the hot hatch market as a desirable but affordable performance road car. Like the Mexico and RS1600, this car was produced at the Aveley plant using the strengthened bodyshell.
The Escort was built in Germany and Britain, as well as in Australia and New Zealand.









Technical data:
- engine: 4 cylinders
- capacity: 1558 cc
- horsepower: 140 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 180 km/h

Ford Bronco

Monday 19 March 2019
he Ford Bronco is a model line of SUVs that were manufactured and marketed by Ford from 1965 to 1996. After the first generation of the Bronco was introduced as a competitor to compact SUVs (including the Jeep CJ-5 and International Harvester Scout), the succeeding four generations of the Bronco were full-size SUVs, competing against the Chevrolet K5 Blazer and Dodge Ramcharger. The first Bronco was assembled using its own chassis, while the full-size Bronco was derived from the Ford F-Series (F-100, later F-150) pickup truck; all Broncos were produced with four-wheel drive powertrains.
The Ford Bronco was withdrawn from the Ford light-truck model line following declining demand for two-door SUVs. For the 1997 model year, Ford replaced the Bronco with the Ford Expedition, a four-door SUV based on the F-150 (the later Ford Excursion was based on the Ford F-250 Super Duty).
From 1965 to 1996, Broncos were produced at Ford's Michigan Truck Plant in Wayne, Michigan. In 2017, Ford announced the reintroduction of the Ford Bronco as a mid-size SUV (derived from the Ford Ranger) as a 2021 model; manufacturing is to return to Michigan Assembly.
For the 1978 model year, the second-generation Bronco was introduced; to better compete with the Chevrolet K5 Blazer, Dodge Ramcharger, and Jeep Cherokee, the Bronco entered the full-size SUV segment. In place of a model-specific chassis, the Bronco was adapted directly from the Ford F-Series, becoming a shortened version of the F-100 4x4. Originally intended for a 1974 launch, the second-generation Bronco (named "Project Shorthorn" during its development) was postponed to MY 1978 in response to fuel economy concerns related to the 1973 fuel crisis; the second-generation Bronco was released for sale after development was nearly finalized on its MY 1980 successor.
In a notable break from a period of downsizing in the American automotive industry, the second-generation Bronco grew significantly in size, adding 12 inches of wheelbase, approximately 28 inches of length, 11 inches of width, and 4 inches of height; based on powertrain configuration, the Bronco gained 1,100 to 1,600 pounds of curb weight over its predecessor.
The second-generation Bronco marks the introduction of design commonality with the Ford F-Series and retained the lift-off hardtop bodystyle for the three-door wagon, though now fiberglass over the rear seat area only (and not a full length steel top), continued through the 1996 withdrawal of the model line. In spite of its short production cycle (only two years), the second-generation Bronco proved successful, overtaking the Blazer and Ramcharger in sales for the first time; initial demand was so strong that customers waited several months to receive vehicles from dealers.













Technical data:
- engine: V8
- capacity: 5600 cc
- horsepower: 158 HP
- gearbox: 3+1
- top speed: 140 km/h