Moskwicz 423

Monday 19 May 2014
The Moskvitch 402 is a small family car manufactured by the former Soviet maker MZMA, first time introduced in 1956 as a second generation of the Moskvitch#Generations series. Unlike its predecessor, which was based on Opel Kadett's body, 402 featured many improvements such as four doors and a standard car radio.
Moskvitch 402 shared the same 4-cylinder flathead engine as its predecessors, however, whose construction dated back in the late 1930s of German engineering. The maximal speed that could be obtained on a free driveway was 88–90 kilometres per hour (55–56 mph), no more than a slight increase over the 401 series (and mostly due to considerable reductions in body weight). It was not until 1958 that the engine was replaced with MZMA's OHV development (among other changes to the motor) which allowed to obtain a maximal speed increase up to 115 kilometres per hour (71 mph) and a much less noisy drive. The new engine 402 model was manufactured as Moskvitch 407.
In 1961, the 407 model was further upgraded with an even stronger, faster M-407D1-D2 engine (allowing to handle the fourth speed on a manual transmission), self-adjusting brake cylinders and hydraulic clutch drive, alongside a completely restructured driver's interior panel. This model, manufactured as Moskvitch 403, served as a transition between the second and the third generation of Moskvitches, which debuted in 1964. The 402 model was completely discontinued by August 1959, with the 407 production ending in 1963 and the 403 in 1965.
Moskvitches 402 and 407 could be considered as the first step in USSR/Russia's automotive history towards producing customer-adapted trim levels for various uses. While the 407 model provided greater driving comfort at bigger expenses, other trims also included the 424 station wagon available for the general public, 431 delivery pick-up/ambulance van and even the 410/411 attempt of creating an SUV-based sedan/station wagon.

Technical data:
- engine: 4 cylinders
- capacity: 1360 cc
- horsepower: 45 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 105 km/h

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