Mercedes Benz Actros MP4

Saturday 15 May 2021

The Mercedes-Benz Actros is a heavy-duty truck introduced by Mercedes-Benz at the 1996 Commercial Vehicle IAA in Hanover, Germany as the replacement for the SK . It is normally used for long-distance haulage, heavy duty distribution haulage and construction haulage. It is available in weights starting at 18 tonnes and is powered by an inline-6 diesel engine with turbocharger and intercooler. Daimler Trucks/Lorries launched the version II of the Actros in 2002, and the version III in 2007. The fourth generation of the Actros, named officially "the New Actros", launched in July 2011.

In 2011, The New Actros appeared for the first time. Components are not shared with its predecessors. 

Technical data:
- engine: S6
- capacity: 12800 cc
- horsepower: 421 HP
- gearbox: 15+2
- top speed: 90 km/h

Kenworth K100 Aerodyne

Saturday 15 May 2021

Kenworth Trucks, Inc. is an American-based truck manufacturer. Founded in 1923 as the successor company to Gerlinger Motors, Kenworth specializes in production of heavy-duty (Class 8) and medium-duty (Class 5-7) commercial vehicles. Headquartered in Seattle suburb Kirkland, Washington, Kenworth has been a wholly owned subsidiary of PACCAR since 1945, operating alongside sister company (and marketplace rival) Peterbilt Motors.

Kenworth marked several firsts in truck production; alongside the first truck produced with a standard diesel-fuel engine, the company introduced a raised-roof sleeper cab, and the first heavy-duty truck with an aerodynamically optimized body design. The Kenworth W900 has been produced continuously since 1961, serving as one of the longest production runs of any vehicles in automotive history.

During the 1970s, the company underwent further expansion, adding an all-new facility in Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1974. Kenworth added two new product lines in 1972, adding the C500 6x6 severe-service conventional and the Hustler low-cab COE (developed jointly with Peterbilt and produced in Canada). The same year, parent company Pacific Car and Foundry adopted its current name PACCAR.

Coinciding with the 50th anniversary of the company, annual Kenworth sales exceeded 10,000 for the first time for 1973.

For 1976, Kenworth launched a flagship customization series, the VIT (Very Important Trucker) with a high level of interior features; distinguished by its skylight windows, the Aerodyne sleeper cab was the first factory-produced sleeper cab with stand-up headroom (for both the W900 and K100). To commemorate the American Bicentennial, the VIT series was introduced in a limited-edition series of 50 (with each truck named after a state).

In 1982 and 1984, respectively, the W900 and K100 underwent their most substantial revisions, becoming the W900B and K100E. While visually distinguished by the adoption of rectangular headlamps, the updates were centered around upgrading fuel economy, road handling, and reliability.

In 1985, the Kenworth T600 was released by the company; in contrast to the W900, the T600 was designed with a set-back front axle and a sloped hoodline. While the latter initially proved controversial, the combination improved aerodynamics, fuel efficiency, and maneuverability. Intended as an expansion of the Kenworth model line, the success of the T600 would lead to the introductions of similar designs from multiple American truck manufacturers. In 1986, the T800 was introduced, adapting the sloped hoodline and set-back front axle for a heavy-duty chassis; the shorter-hood T400 was introduced in 1988 as a regional-haul tractor.

In 1987, Kenworth introduced the Mid-Ranger COE, its first medium-duty truck. Shared with Peterbilt, the Brazilian-produced Mid-Ranger was derived from the MAN G90 (a wide-body version of the Volkswagen LT). In 1992, the Mid-Ranger became the K300, as PACCAR shifted production to Sainte-Thérèse, Quebec.

In 1993, Kenworth opened its facility in Renton, Washington, as its third United States assembly plant.

In 1994, the T300 was introduced as the first Kenworth medium-duty conventional truck, adapting the T600 to a lower-GVWR Class 7 weight rating. The Aerocab sleeper was introduced, integrating the Aerodyne II sleeper cab and the drivers' cab as a single unit.

In 1996, Kenworth introduced the T2000 as its next-generation aerodynamic conventional. While not directly replacing the T600 and W900, the T2000 was a completely new design (the first from Kenworth since 1961). The first "wide-body" Kenworth conventional, the model shared its cab with Peterbilt, distinguished by its bumper-mounted headlamps.

In 1998, parent company PACCAR purchased British truck manufacturer Leyland Trucks, two years after Dutch manufacturer DAF Trucks (the two had been merged as Leyland DAF from 1987 to 1993). Within PACCAR, DAF would develop COE trucks for Kenworth and Peterbilt.

Technical data:
- engine: V6
- capacity: 14000 cc
- horsepower: 350 HP
- gearbox: 10+1
- top speed: 110 km/h

Kenworth Bullnose 1950

Saturday 15 May 2021

The first new post-war Kenworth's truck with cab over the engine layout was the range 500. This version used doors, roof elements and chassis from conventional models of 500 series. For the original shape of the front end the truck received nickname "Bull-Nose". Interestingly, the cab of the truck didn't tilt, and was rigidly fixed to the frame. Service of the engine was either from the cockpit or below. Cabin was available in both day and sleeper version. The range included model 521 (4x2), 523 (6x4) and 524 (6x2).

Technical data:
- engine: V8
- capacity: 5000 cc
- horsepower: 420 HP
- gearbox: 5+3
- top speed: 80 km/h

Ford LTL 9000

Saturday 15 May 2021

The Ford L-series (also named Ford Louisville or, for the 1990s aerodynamic models, Ford Aeromax) is a range of heavy-duty trucks that were assembled and marketed by Ford between 1970 and 1998. Ford had been producing their "Heavy Duty" trucks since 1948 and their "Super Duty" lineup since 1958 marketed by various GVW ratings. Truck weight classifications 1-8 were a new concept brought about by the DOT National Highway Administration. The first dedicated Class 8 truck produced by the company, the L-series range replaced the F-series "Super Duty" and N-series (short conventional derived from the F-series). Produced as both straight trucks and semitractors, the Ford L-series encompassed a wide range of models through the Class 6-8 GVWR ratings in medium-duty, severe-service, and vocational applications. The line would become one of the most popular series of trucks Ford ever produced.

The L series was produced in the Kentucky Truck Plant near Louisville, Kentucky, which gave rise to the nickname "Louisville Line" trucks; as part of a 1996 redesign, part of the model line officially took on the Louisville nameplate.

Following the sale of the Ford heavy-truck line to Freightliner in 1996, the L-series was discontinued by Ford at the end of 1998. Freightliner would concurrently take over production of the Ford L-series, opening its Sterling Trucks subsidiary; the L-series became the Sterling A line, Acterra, and L line, remaining in production until 2009 when Sterling Trucks closed operations.

In 1963, Ford produced its first short BBC conventional with the introduction of the N-series Super Duty, supplementing the Super Duty models of the F-series. As Ford did with the H-series cabover (derived from the C-series and nicknamed the "Two-Story Falcon"), an all-new chassis raised the cab upward; while sharing its grille with the H-series, the N-series shared its cab with the F-series pickup trucks.

By the 1960s, Ford sought to modernize and streamline its heavy-truck line. In 1961, the heavy-duty F-series (F-750 to F-1100) became a larger, separate model line along with introduction of the all new H-series Linehauler. In 1966, the H-series was replaced by the all-new W-series cabover. In a change from adapting the F-series to become a heavy truck and to replace the N-series, Ford began design work on an all-new truck range, which became the L-series. With an all-new heavier-duty chassis, the L-series also featured a larger cab; to improve serviceability, the design included a front-hinged hood.

For 1970, the L-series was introduced in four size ranges, two hood lengths and grille styles, and with single or tandem (denoted by the "T" in the model designation) rear axles. Powertrains included a wide range of gasoline and diesel engines, based on GVWR.

In 1971, Ford introduced a set-back front axle configuration. For the rest of the 1970s, the L-series saw few major changes. In 1976, the LL/LTL-9000 was introduced. Designed as a truck for long-haul drivers, the LTL-9000 was a competitor to the GMC General, Kenworth W900, Mack Super-Liner, and Peterbilt 359. Fitted with a set-forward front axle and a longer hood, this version had more room for larger powertrains. In 1978, Ford gave the LL/LTL-9000 its own grille and headlight styling, including one of the first uses of the Ford Blue Oval in North America.

Although the L-series would see few revisions throughout its production, elements of its design would see use in other Ford vehicles. In 1974, the W-series cabover received a larger grille similar to the chrome version on the L series. For 1978, the F-series/Bronco grille was given a similar egg-crate grille pattern. In the 1980 redesign of the medium-duty F- series, the hexagonal shape of the grille was carried over; it is a theme used in all Super Duty trucks since their 1998 introduction.

In 1984 (as 1985 model year), the rest of the L-series became one of the last North American Fords to adopt the Ford Blue Oval; as with the LTL-9000, it was placed above the grille. In 1988, the L-series changed its grille design from an egg-crate design to that of horizontal chrome bars; the Ford Blue Oval became centered. In addition, rectangular headlights became standard in 1991.

1992 saw the introduction of the set-back front axle version of the LL/LTL-9000, designated the LLS and LTLS-9000, along with the corresponding Aeromax versions that had more aerodynamic bumpers and optional chassis skirting.

Technical data:
- engine: V8
- capacity: 9300 cc
- horsepower: 365 HP
- gearbox: 13+1
- top speed: 100 km/h

Ford F100

Thursday 13 May 2021

The seventh generation of the Ford F-Series is a range of trucks that was produced by Ford from the 1980 to 1986 model years. The first complete redesign of the F-Series since 1965, the seventh generation received a completely new chassis and body.

Distinguished by its squarer look and flatter body panels, this generation marked several firsts for the F-Series, including the introduction of the Ford Blue Oval grille emblem. However, this generation marked the end of the long-running F-100, the Ranger trim, sealed-beam headlamps, and would be the final generation to offer a Flareside bed with separate rear fenders, steel sides, and a wooden floor.

The seventh-generation F-series was produced by multiple sites in North America and by Ford Argentina and Ford Australia. The model line served as the basis for the eighth and ninth-generation F-Series and the third, fourth, and fifth generations of the Ford Bronco. Though sharing no body parts, the model line shared mechanical commonality with the Ford E-series.

In 1979, Ford debuted a brand new, redesigned F-Series pickup truck line, with the goal of maintaining utility while getting better fuel economy than its previous generation. However, drastic measures were taken in reducing weight, including cutting large holes in the frame on model year 1980-1981 trucks. This was discontinued by 1981 for the 1982 model year. Model year 1980–981 trucks had a plain grille with "FORD" spelled across the front of the hood in chrome lettering, similar to the 1978-1979 models of the previous generation.

The 1982 model year was marked by a slight but important cosmetic change: 1982–86 models had the "FORD" letters above the grille removed, and a Ford oval placed in the center of the grille, with fewer vertical bars in the grille itself. This made the 1982 the first model year to feature the Blue Oval on the front, a trademark of all Ford pickups since, with the exception of the 2010–present F-150 SVT Raptor. The frame was strengthened and the trucks became heavier for 1982; this frame would underpin the F-Series until the 1997 redesign. Grille options included a full chrome grille, a black grille or the standard flat grey plastic grille. The headlight bezels also came in several color options, ranging from light grey, grey, dark grey, and black; with the latter two being the most common.

Introduced for 1980 models, an optional resettable trip meter was installed on speedometers and the mileage counter was moved to the top of the speedometer as part of the optional Sport Instrumentation Group. The Sport Instrumentation Group also included the optional tachometer in the center of the cluster, as well as oil and ammeter gauges. In 1984, the body moulding and interior trim were updated. In 1985-1986 models, the upper accent mouldings were moved below the front marker. For 1985, the rear tailgate moulding on XLT models was updated and previewed the design of the 1987 model. This molding has become increasingly rare and fetches a high price. A cargo light was available as an option and was included in the Light Group option package. (A Combination Stop/cargo lamp was not required until September 1, 1993 for the 1994 year model.)

17 different colors were available, along with two-tone options and a choice of clearcoat or non-clearcoat paint.

Various standard equipment included interesting features such as a coat hook on the driver's side, AM radio (AM/FM and AM/FM Cassette were optional), scuff plates and vent windows. The back of the glove compartment door featured coin slots and cup depressions to hold cups and food similar to a food tray on a train. This was a feature only found on this generation and never on later models. It also showed a diagram with lift points as well as other mechanical information. Sliding rear windows were optional as well as cargo lights, under-hood lights, and many others. Ford offered over 150 options for the seventh-generation F-Series.

Technical data:
- engine: V8
- capacity: 4200 cc
- horsepower: 115 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 140 km/h

Fiat 125

Thursday 13 May 2021

The Fiat 125 is a large family car manufactured and marketed by Fiat from 1967-1972. Derivatives were built under license outside Italy until the 1990s. As launched the car was unusual in blending saloon car passenger accommodation with sports car performance, a combination which would be more widely adopted by the European volume auto-makers in the decade ahead.

The floor pan was virtually unchanged from that of the longer variant of the outgoing model, the Fiat 1300/1500, and the chassis used was the same as the Fiat 1300/1500. The body was a slightly lengthened development of the Fiat 124: both models shared the same passenger compartment and doors, but the 125's rear seat was set slightly further back, reflecting the 2505 mm wheel-base, inherited from the Fiat 1500 and over 8 cm (3 inches) longer than that of the 124.

The new car's engine was based on the one fitted in the Fiat 124 Sport: a 1608 cc DOHC unit with 90 bhp driving the rear wheels. The 125 was equipped with a Weber 34 DCHE 20 or Solex 34 PIA carburettor. The car was fitted with an alternator, reflecting the twin headlights and the increasing number of energy intensive electrical components appearing on cars at this time. Other noteworthy features included the electromagnetic cooling fan clutch.

The 125 featured one of the world's first intermittent wipers and was praised when new for its handling and dynamics. British Autocar found the slight understeer tendencies were easily cured by adjusting the front camber.

In 1968 the 125S ("Special") was added to the range, with 100 bhp (from a modified cylinder head, camshafts, inlet/outlet manifold and Weber/Solex carburettor) and, unusually at this time, a five-speed gearbox. It also had halogen lights, servo-assisted twin circuit brakes and optional superlight magnesium wheels. A variety of other improvements were made including improved cabin ventilation, trim and styling.

The Special was facelifted in 1971 using pretty much the same trim as the 125S, but both front and rear lights were new and wider, enhancing the visual width of the car. The interior gained upgraded upholstery of the seats and a wood facia. A three-speed automatic transmission as well as air conditioning became available as an option.

In Argentina the 125 was built from 1972 to 1982, initially by Fiat-Concord and later Sevel. In addition to the 4-door sedan version, a station wagon (called "Familiar"), a pickup (called "Multicarga", a unique Argentine design) were built. There was also a coupe called 125 Sport with the same mechanics than the sedan, but based on the Fiat Coupé 1500 Vignale.

Technical data:
- engine: S4
- capacity: 1608 cc
- horsepower: 90 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 150 km/h

Opel Rekord C Coupe

Monday 10 May 2021

The Opel Rekord Series C is an executive car that was introduced in August 1966, by Opel as a replacement for the short-lived Opel Rekord Series B. It was slightly larger all round than its predecessor, from which it inherited most of its engines. It continued in production until replaced by the Opel Rekord Series D at the end of 1971.

The Rekord C's 4+1⁄2-year production run was longer than that of any previous generation of Opel Rekord, and during that period 1,276,681 were produced. This made it the first "middle-class" Opel to exceed the one million mark. Cars based on the Rekord C were also built at other General Motors plants both inside and beyond Europe, notably in South Africa and (with Chevrolet engines) Brazil.

After less than a year of production, in August 1966, the "stopgap" Opel Rekord B was replaced with the Opel Rekord C, featuring completely new bodywork. Hans Mersheimer, Opel's Technical Director and Chief Engineer, until his retirement in 1967, had set down the parameters for the new Rekord back in 1963.

The design of the Rekord C has been characterised by some enthusiasts as "erotic" on account of the "hip-curve" („Hüftschwung“ ) on the lower window-line ahead of the C-pillar, which reminded some observers of a Coca-Cola bottle and so gave rise to this becoming known as "Coke-Bottle line" Rekord "(Cola-Flaschen-Rekord)". The "Coke-Bottle line", which was also picked up by GM's English, subsidiary, with the Viva HB and seems to have originated in the United States with one or two mid-1960s "muscle-car" designs: it was also picked up for a sedan design by the 1968 Chevrolet Chevy II. There was a concern at Opel throughout this period that their designs might be rejected by European buyers as being simply "too American", and it was presumably a reflection of this that an alternative design without the "hip-curve" line on the back doors was also prepared by Opel designer Herbert Killmer. There was certainly a perception that Opel's great rival fell foul of the "too American" complaint with their Ford 17M launched in 1967 featuring a variation on the "hip-curve" which then had to be relaunched with a simplified form less than a year later because of poor sales which, rightly or wrongly, were attributed to an excessively American design. Ford's stumble with their 1967 17M model was Opel's gain in the market place, however, and there was no sign of market resistance the exceptionally well balanced overall design of the Opel Rekord C, hip-curve and all.

The new Rekord again offered a relatively extensive range of body types. Top seller was the saloon/sedan, available with either 2 or 4 doors. There was a 3-door "Kombi" station wagon, and now, for the first time, a Rekord station wagon with five doors. Opel also offered a three-door delivery van which was essentially identical to the station wagon except that the rear side windows were replaced with metal panels. In addition, from 1967 a factory built coupé was provided. This version had no fixed B pillar and excited positive reactions to the stylish "pillarless" profile on show when both side windows were fully opened.

A cabriolet version was also available. Based on the Rekord C coupé, this was a coach-built conversion produced by the body builders Karl Deutsch. The approach made them very much more expensive than other cars in the range: the cabriolet cost DM 4,000 more than the coupé on which it was based. Not many Rekord C cabriolets were sold, amid increasing concerns, during the later 1960s, that open topped cars (without roll-over bars) might be more dangerous in the event of a crash than cars with fixed roofs. An alternative cabriolet conversion, based on the Rekord C 2-door sedan, was developed by Karmann of Osnabrück. This never went into anything approaching volume production, although four pre-production examples are believed still to survive.

Opel had introduced a new generation of engines a year earlier with the Rekord B and these were the engines that reappeared in the Rekord C. The engine featured an unusual Camshaft in Head (CIH) engine configuration. The chain-driven camshaft was positioned directly above the cylinders but this was not a conventional ohc design. The camshaft operated the valves using rocker arms because the camshaft itself was positioned too low above the cylinders to permit direct action from the camshaft on the valves heads. One reason for this may have been cosmetic. Other automakers such as BMW with their 1500 launched in 1962 and Volkswagen with their NSU designed K70, which finally made it to the showrooms in 1970, squeezed vital centimeters off the height of the engine unit by canting it over at an eccentric angle in the engine bay. Opel's so-called (CIH) engine configuration similarly enabled the Rekord to incorporate the low bonnet/hood lines that style-conscious product development departments demanded.

The four-cylinder water-cooled 1492 cc unit, known as the "1500", and which first featured the previous year in the Opel Rekord B was now carried over with few significant changes, although an in-house "Carter Licence" carburetter briefly returned (having, in the Rekord B, been replaced by a bought-in carburetter from Zenith or Solex). The "1500" was the entry-level engine in 1966 and came with a claimed maximum power output of 58 hp which in 1969 was raised to 60 hp (44 kW) when the old GM "Carter Licence" carburetter was replaced by a bought-in Solex carburetter. Acceleration figures for the 1498 cc cars were a little slower than on the predecessor model which presumably resulted from the increased weight of the Rekord C. Fuel consumption looks heavy by modern standards, but this was nonetheless the most fuel efficient model in the Rekord line-up, and published data indicate that it was also more fuel efficient than the contemporary Ford 17M and Volkswagen 411. Early in 1970 the 1492 cc unit was withdrawn. Presumably it had cost much the same to produce as the more powerful and more torquey but in most respects identical 1698 cc engine which now-became the entry-level power plant. More significantly, at the end of 1970 Opel would introduce the Opel Ascona, which, being slightly smaller and more modern than the Rekord, would compete more effectively in the 1500 cc class than the relatively underpowered base-level Rekord.

A four-cylinder water-cooled 1698 cc unit had also first appeared in the Rekord B, but only in high compression form. Launching the Rekord C in 1966 Opel introduced a 1698 cc unit with the same lower compression ratio of 8.2:1 as the 1492 cc engine: in this form the engine was known as the "1700". As with the "1500", Opel returned to the old home produced "Carter Licence" carburetter for the first year of production, giving rise to a claimed power output of just 60 hp (44 KW). As with the "1500", so with the "1700", Opel gave up on the self built carburetter after a year, and with a bought-in Solex carburetter, though still with the 8.2:1 compression ratio, claimed power with the "1700" unit was increased to 66 hp (48 kW) in 1967. The "1700" engine powered more Rekord Cs than any of the other engines available for the car. Also offered was a "1700 S" using the same engine block but with a Solex 35 PDSI carburetter and a compression ratio raised to 8,8:1. Powered by this unit, the Rekord came with a claimed maximum power output of 75 hp (65 kW). This, in effect, was the same unit that had been launched in 1965 in the Rekord B 1700S.

The four-cylinder water-cooled 1897 cc unit, providing a maximum 90 hp (66 kW) of power known as the "1900 S" had also first appeared in 1965 in the Rekord B. With a compression ratio of 9.0:1 and a Solex twin chamber 32 DIDTA carburetter it powered the fastest four-cylinder version of the Opel Rekord C at its 1966 launch. However, in November 1967 a new version of the 1897 cc engine appeared with a modified "high efficiency" cylinder head and with the compression ratio further raised - now to 9.5:1 - and, for the first time in a Rekord, two Italian twin chamber Weber 40 DFO carburetters. This engine version, known as the "1900 H", came with a claimed maximum power output of 106 hp (78 kW) which made the car that it powered the most powerful Rekord yet. This was branded as the Opel Rekord Sprint and was initially available as a sedan or a coupé. In January 1969 Opel reported that the Rekord Sprint Coupé had sold much better than the sedan/saloon version, and the sedan/saloon version was withdrawn.

In March 1964 Opel had introduced Rekord customers to the option of a six-cylinder engine, installing a well-tried unit that was already powering the larger Admiral and Kapitän models and could trace its origins back to 1937. The Rekord C range was broadened in December 1966 with the option of an entirely new six-cylinder engine, featuring the (CIH) valvegear and camshaft configuration of the new four-cylinder engines introduced in 1965. In fact the new six-cylinder engine shared its cylinder dimensions with the entry level Rekord's 1492 cc unit which will have reduced usefully the variety of components needed. However, the six-cylinder engine naturally had an engine capacity 1+1⁄2 the size or the four-cylinder unit, which gave rise to an engine size of 2239 cc. Claimed power of 95 hp (70 kW) was slightly higher than that of the (at launch) most powerful 4-cylinder Rekord C, the "1900 S" and the six-cylinder engine also provided a small dividend in terms of improved torque. Performance of the new "2200" Rekord was therefore ahead of that of the "1900 S", but the engine was also relatively heavy and there was a penalty in terms of fuel consumption. The 6-cylinder Rekord C sold only in small numbers, and in August 1968 it was withdrawn from sale. After this there were no more six-cylinder-engined Opel Rekords, although this is when the Rekord "Six" went on sale in South Africa and South-West Africa, as the Commodore nameplate was not offered there. In southern Africa the six-cylinder Rekords were available with four-door sedan or two-door coupé bodywork, and only in combination with an automatic transmission.

By the time they withdrew the six-cylinder Rekord, Opel had launched, in February 1967, the Opel Commodore. This shared the Rekord's body but provided more luxurious trimmings, and it came with a choice from three different sizes of six-cylinder engine. The "2200" engine first seen in the Rekord C in December 1966 was also offered in the new Commodore when it was launched in February 1967. However, most Commodore buyers chose other (larger) engines, leaving the "2200" version a slow seller in both the Commodore and the Rekord ranges.

Technical data:
- engine: S4
- capacity: 1897 cc
- horsepower: 75 HP
- gearbox: 4+1
- top speed: 150 km/h